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Most of the parents think their approaches to raising children different from _____ of their parents.

A. that

B. this

C. it

D. those

 

考点:
答案:
D 【解析】 考查代词。代词that指代单数可数名词或不可数名词,后面要有定语修饰,表示特指;this指代说过的内容,it指代上文出现的同一事物;those指代复数可数名词,有定语修饰,表...
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Read the following passage and men answer ne questons.

For a More Creative Brain, Travel

There are plenty of things to be gained from going abroad: new friends, new experiences, new stories. But living in another country may come with a less noticeable benefit, too: Some scientists say it can also make you more creative.

6 Writers and thinkers have long felt the creative benefits of international travel. Ernest Hemingway, for example, drew inspiration for much of his work from his time in Spain and France. Aldous Huxley, the author of Brave New World, moved from the U. K. to the U.S. in his 40s to branch out into screenwriting. Mark Twain, who sailed around the coast of the Mediterranean in 1869, wrote in his travelogue Innocents broad that travel is "fatal to prejudice and narrow-mindedness."

In recent years, psychologists and neuroscientists have begun examining the potential traveling abroad has to affect mental change. In general, creativity is related to how the brain is wired. Neural pathways are influenced by environment and habit, meaning they're also sensitive to change: New sounds,smells, languages, tastes, sensations, and sights spark different synapses(突触)in the brain and may have the potential to refresh the mind.

"Foreign experiences increase cognitive flexibility," says Adam Galinsky, an author of numerous studies on the connection between creativity and international travel. Cognitive flexibility is the mind's ability to jump between different ideas, a key component of creativity. But it's not just about being abroad, Galinsky says: "The key, critical process is multicultural engagement (参与), immersion, and adaptation. Someone who lives abroad and doesn't engage with the local culture will likely get less of a creative boost (促进)than someone who travels abroad and really engages in the local environment.

The researchers also found that the more countries CEOS had lived in, the more creative the products tended to be--but only up to a point. Those who had lived and worked in more than three countries, the study found, still tended to show higher levels of creativity than those who hadn't worked abroad at all. but less creativity than their peers who had worked in a smaller number of foreign countries. The authors assumed that those who had lived in too many countries hadn't been able to properly immerse themselves culturally; they were bouncing around too much. "It gets back to this idea of a deeper level of learning that's necessary for these effects to occur," Galinsky says.

Cultural distance, or how different a foreign culture is from ones own, may also play a role: Surprisingly, Galinsky and his colleagues found that living someplace with a larger cultural distance was often associated with lower creativity than living in a more familiar culture. The reason for that, they hypothesized, was that an especially different culture might come with a bigger intimidation factor, which may discourage people from immersing themselves in it—and no immersion, they explained, could mean none of the cognitive changes associated with living in another country.

Of course, although a new country is an easy way to leave a "social comfort zone," the cultural engagement associated with cognitive change doesn't have to happen abroad. If a plane ticket isn't an option, maybe try taking the subway to a new neighborhood. Sometimes, the research suggests, all that's needed for a creative boost is a fresh cultural scene.

Questions 11 to 15. Judge if the following statements agree with the information given in the passage. Choose A for TRUE if the statements agree with it, choose B for FALSE if the statements don't agree with it, choose C for NOT GIVEN if the information the statements carry is not mentioned anywhere in the passage.

Questions 16 to 19. Match the following words with their meanings in the passage. Note that there are four choices more than you need.

1.New environment may influence people's mind.

2.The more foreign experiences one has. the more flexible one's mind will be.

3.People who have lived and worked in two countries show the highest level of creativity.

4.A place of completely different culture contributes more to one's creativity than a familiar one.

5.A neighborhood of fresh culture is not necessarily a bad choice to boost creativity.

6.branch

7.fatal

8.wired

9.immersing

10.What is the purpose of the passage?

A. To show the advantages of traveling.

B. To share research findings on traveling.

C. To advocate traveling benefits for creativity.

D. To suggest an alternative to traveling abroad.

 


What defines who we are? Our habits? Our tastes? Our memories? I would say it must be my deep-seated sense of right and wrong.

And yet, like many other people who speak more than one language, I often have the sense that I'm a slightly different person in each of my languages-more confident in English, more relaxed in French. Is it possible that my moral compass also points in somewhat different directions depending on the language I'm using?

Several recent psychological studies suggest that when people are faced with moral dilemmas, they do respond differently when considering them in their native and foreign tongue.

In a 2014 paper led by Albert Costa, volunteers were presented with a moral dilemma known as the "trolley problem": imagine that a runaway trolley is dashing toward a group of five people standing on the tracks, unable to move. You are next to a switch that can shift the trolley to a different set of tracks, thereby sparing the five people, but resulting in the death of one who is standing on the side tracks. Do you pull the switch?

Most people agree that they would. But what if the only way to stop the trolley is by pushing a large stranger off a footbridge into its path? People tend to be very reluctant(不情愿的) to say they would do this. But Costa and his colleagues found that posing the dilemma in a language that volunteers had learned as a foreign tongue dramatically increased their willingness, from fewer than 20%o of respondents working in their native language to about 50% of those using the foreign one.

Why does it matter whether we judge morality in our native language or a foreign one? According to one explanation, such judgments involve two separate and competing modes of thinking—one of these, a quick, gut-level "feeling," and the other, careful deliberation about the greatest good for the greatest number. When we use a foreign language, we unconsciously sink into the more deliberate mode simply because the effort of operating in our non-native language cues our cognitive (认知) system to prepare for strenuous(费力的)activity. An alternative explanation is because our childhood languages change with greater emotional intensity than do those learned in more academic settings. As a result, moral judgments made in a foreign language are less burdened with the emotional reactions.

What then, s a multilingual(多语言的) person' s true" moral self? Is it my moral memories? Or is it the reasoning i'm able to apply when free of such unconscious restrictions? Or perhaps, as the research implies, regardless of how many languages we speak: that our moral compass is a combination of the earliest forces that have shaped us and the ways in which we escape them.

1.In the author's opinion, it is your_____that defines who you are.

A. habit

B. taste

C. memory

D. morality

2.In the "trolley problem" study,_______.

A. most volunteers agree to pull the switch

B. most volunteers attempt to push a stranger off a footbridge

C. 20% of the volunteers choose to shift the tracks of the trolley

D. 50% of the volunteers are reluctant to kill the five people on the tracks

3.Researchers find that when faced with a moral dilemma, people______.

A. make decisions unconsciously in a foreign language

B. take more time to make decisions in a foreign language

C. learn a lot about academic settings in their native language

D. are more likely to be influenced by emotions in their native language

4.Which of the following would he the best title for the passage?

A. What is Our True Moral Self

B. How Languages Shape People's Personality

C. What is the Key Factor in Decision Making

D. How Morality Changes in a Foreign Language