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What defines who we are? Our habits? Our tastes? Our memories? I would say it must be my deep-seated sense of right and wrong.

And yet, like many other people who speak more than one language, I often have the sense that I'm a slightly different person in each of my languages-more confident in English, more relaxed in French. Is it possible that my moral compass also points in somewhat different directions depending on the language I'm using?

Several recent psychological studies suggest that when people are faced with moral dilemmas, they do respond differently when considering them in their native and foreign tongue.

In a 2014 paper led by Albert Costa, volunteers were presented with a moral dilemma known as the "trolley problem": imagine that a runaway trolley is dashing toward a group of five people standing on the tracks, unable to move. You are next to a switch that can shift the trolley to a different set of tracks, thereby sparing the five people, but resulting in the death of one who is standing on the side tracks. Do you pull the switch?

Most people agree that they would. But what if the only way to stop the trolley is by pushing a large stranger off a footbridge into its path? People tend to be very reluctant(不情愿的) to say they would do this. But Costa and his colleagues found that posing the dilemma in a language that volunteers had learned as a foreign tongue dramatically increased their willingness, from fewer than 20%o of respondents working in their native language to about 50% of those using the foreign one.

Why does it matter whether we judge morality in our native language or a foreign one? According to one explanation, such judgments involve two separate and competing modes of thinking—one of these, a quick, gut-level "feeling," and the other, careful deliberation about the greatest good for the greatest number. When we use a foreign language, we unconsciously sink into the more deliberate mode simply because the effort of operating in our non-native language cues our cognitive (认知) system to prepare for strenuous(费力的)activity. An alternative explanation is because our childhood languages change with greater emotional intensity than do those learned in more academic settings. As a result, moral judgments made in a foreign language are less burdened with the emotional reactions.

What then, s a multilingual(多语言的) person' s true" moral self? Is it my moral memories? Or is it the reasoning i'm able to apply when free of such unconscious restrictions? Or perhaps, as the research implies, regardless of how many languages we speak: that our moral compass is a combination of the earliest forces that have shaped us and the ways in which we escape them.

1.In the author's opinion, it is your_____that defines who you are.

A. habit

B. taste

C. memory

D. morality

2.In the "trolley problem" study,_______.

A. most volunteers agree to pull the switch

B. most volunteers attempt to push a stranger off a footbridge

C. 20% of the volunteers choose to shift the tracks of the trolley

D. 50% of the volunteers are reluctant to kill the five people on the tracks

3.Researchers find that when faced with a moral dilemma, people______.

A. make decisions unconsciously in a foreign language

B. take more time to make decisions in a foreign language

C. learn a lot about academic settings in their native language

D. are more likely to be influenced by emotions in their native language

4.Which of the following would he the best title for the passage?

A. What is Our True Moral Self

B. How Languages Shape People's Personality

C. What is the Key Factor in Decision Making

D. How Morality Changes in a Foreign Language


1.D 2.A 3.D 4.D 【解析】 本文是一篇议论文,让我们区别于他人的是我们的道德感。但讲不同语言的时候会影响我们的道德情绪,文章中介绍了著名的"trolley ...

The Power of a Name

My full name is Lily Myunghi M. When my parents gave me this name, they created an important part of my identity that will be part of me forever.

My first name, Lily, was inspired by a story my mom heard a long time ago. Some people wanted to get rid of their tiger lilies, so they dug a deep, deep hole and threw the tiger lily plants in. For years, they felt they had succeeded in killing the lilies. But one spring, strong, green stocks rose to the surface. My mom named me Lily because she hoped for a beautiful daughter, who would also be strong and resilient, just like those orange blossomed lily plants.

My middle name is Myunghi. My mom, who is of Korean heritage, wanted to honor our Asian roots. The middle name means "clear-eyed girl" in Korean. My parents chose it because they believe life is difficult, and they hoped being "clear-eyed" would help me find my way in the world.

However, in English, Myunghi loses its beautiful meaning. It becomes the hesitation on people's faces as they stumble over its mere two syllables(音节). It becomes the surprised expressions of classmates who have never heard a name anything like it before It becomes a blushing(脸红的)little girl, embarrassed by her own name, a name that her parents put so much thought into.

When I was younger, I hid my middle name, pre tending it didn't exist. Looking back, I pity the girl who was too ashamed to reveal her full name to anyone.

My grandparents were raised in Korea, where parents take great care choosing a name with a meaning that will help their child through life. My grandparents were born into the Japanese Occupation of Korea and assigned Japanese names, which stripped(剥夺) away their cultural identities bit by bit.

I've grown to love and appreciate my name. I no longer hide my name, but instead, proudly announce it, since my grandparents could not. I accept this special part of my identity that was chosen especially for me.

My full name is Lily Myunghi M. It paints a magnificent picture of unconditional love, hope, and heritage coming together to form a girl. And that girl, is me.

1.We can know from the story that tiger lilies

A. are strong plants

B. are green stocks

C. have white blossoms

D. grow in deep holes

2.Why did the author try to hide her middle name when she was younger?

A. She was ashamed of her Asian roots.

B. She felt awkward about her unusual name.

C. She felt it difficult to pronounce the name.

D. She was too shy to fit in with her classmates.

3.What does the author intend to tell us?

A. A good name brings a bright future.

B. Her name helps to keep her identity.

C. She appreciates the love from her parents.

D. Parents often pick an unusual name for the child.


Planning a cruise on a budget often involves searching for the best cruise deals and specials. While it's true that one of the best ways to save on cruises is to choose major lines' seasonal promotional offers, there are other ways to significantly reduce the cost of your trip. You might even be able to enjoy a cruise on as little as $100 a day.

We consulted with Colleen McDaniel, senior executive editor of Cruise Critic, to get even more money-saving tips. Read on to discover how you can enjoy cruises for cheap.

Purchase an all-inclusive package

An easy way to rack up(增加) a high cruise bill is by taking advantage of every extra that a cruise line has to offer without knowing which extras are included in the package you've purchased. If you're worried about spending too much on activities, beverages, food and accommodations, book an all-inclusive package, which could help you save money in the long run.

Seek unadvertised discounts

Though they don't always advertise them, many cruise lines offer special prices for certain groups. Royal Caribbean, for example, extends special pricing on all cruises to airline employees.

Call the cruise line to find out if it offers discounts for any groups, employers or organizations you are affiliated with, and you could save up to S100 or more a day on your booking.

Use an app to track prices

If you can be flexible with your travel dates, you might be able to get a great deal on a cruise by using an app like Cruise Critic. The app lets you monitor prices of upcoming cruises and informs you of any major changes on prices as the days go by. If the price on your cruise drops after you've booked, you can contact the cruise line to negotiate the difference. The cruise line might refund you in the form of an onboard credit that you can use for cruise activities and other amenities during your trip.

Look for local deals

Many cruise-goers extend their vacations by booking stays and planning activities in port cities before and after the cruise. If this is your plan, save money on dining and adventures by looking for local deals ahead of time.

1.According to the passage, who might get unadvertised discounts of Royal Carribbean?

A. Senior editors.

B. Royal members.

C. Airline employees.

D. Local cruise-goers.

2.The main purpose of the passage is to____.

A. advertise a cruise app

B. present the advantages of a cruise

C. inform people of what to do on a cruise

D. offer tips on saving money for a cruise trip

3.The passage is most probably taken from a ______.

A. sailing blog

B. science journal

C. travel brochure

D. finance magazine