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The Lifecycle of a T-shirt

We all probably have a lot of T-shirts, but do you ever stop and think about the influence of a T-shirt on the planet? You’d probably be surprised to learn what's involved in the lifecycle of just one T-shirt.

There are 5 major stages: material, production, shipping, use and disposal.The material stage involves farming, irrigating, fertilizing, harvesting and ginning. While cotton is a natural fiber and not as harmful to the environment as manmade fibers, it still takes a toll in the material and production stages. Commercial cotton farming uses a large amount of water, and the use of pesticides (杀虫剂)is widespread across the globe, especially in cotton farming. Studies have shown that farmers spend around $4.1 billion on pesticides annually, of which 25% was spent on cotton crops in the US.

Once the cotton is grown and harvested, so begins the production stage: spinning, knitting, bleaching, dyeing, cutting, sewing, etc.——these processes also use a great deal of water and energy. Commercial dyes and bleaches are harmful pollutants and can eventually pollute groundwater.

After the T-shirt is produced, it enters the transportation stage. This often involves overseas shipping. Take a look in your closet. Chances are that most of your cotton garments (衣服)are made in China or India. Garments can be shipped via plane, ship or truck…,all of which spill CO2 into the atmosphere. Calculations show that C02 emissions from light trucks alone amount to 1.15 pounds per mile.

Once the T-shirt reaches the retail market, it is purchased. This stage may seem like the leastenvironmentally damaging part. But consider the number of times you’ve washed and dried your favorite T-shirt. Washing machines are certainly becoming more efficient. However, the average American household does 400 loads of laundry per year, using about 40 gallons of water per load. Such excessive water use is combined with the large amount of energy used by dryers.

The final stage of life is disposal. This releases harmful emissions, or involves a landfill where cotton takes years to break down. Current US records show that an estimated 15% of clothes and shoes are recycled, which means that consumers send a shocking 85% of these materials to landfills.

We all need new clothes every once in a while, but let’s all try to keep in mind what goes into the production of clothing... It has a real impact on the planet.

There are a lot of things you can do to help reduce your impact. Reuse and recycle clothes. If they’re too worn out to wear, cut them up and use them as cleaning rags. Donate them to charity or another organization that recycles textiles. When possible, make an effort to buy organic cotton. Turn down the thermostat on your washer, and line dry your clothes when the weather will allow it.

1.What can be inferred from this passage?

A. The production process may affect water safety.

B. The clothing cost is relatively low in China and India.

C. Cotton clothes are buried because they are hard to break down.

D. The use stage is the least environmentally harmful of the five stages.

2.We can learn from the passage that in the US    .

A. pesticides in cotton farming cost over 4 billion dollars every year

B. C02 emissions of land transport amount to 1.15 pounds per mile

C. about 15% of the clothes and shoes are made of materials that are recycled

D. about 16, 000 gallons of water is used annually by an average family on laundry

3.The underlined phrase “takes a toll” probably means “”.

A. wastes water    B. has a bad effect

C. uses energy    D. takes a lot of time

4.What is the purpose of this article?

A. To encourage people to donate clothes to charity.

B. To introduce the five stages in the lifecycle of clothing.

C. To persuade people to purchase more organic cotton.

D. To promote eco-friendly actions related to clothes.

 

考点:
答案:
1.A 2.D 3.B 4.D 【解析】 本文是一篇议论文。这篇文章讲述了一件T恤的各个生命时期对环境造成的影响,并提出一些和衣服有关的对生态环境友好行为的建议。 ...
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A robot called Bina48 has successfully taken a course in the philosophy of love at Notre Dame de Namur University (NDNU), in California.

According to course instructor William Barry, associate professor at NDNU, Bina48 is the world’s first socially advanced robot to complete a college course, a feat he described as “remarkable.” The robot took part in class discussions, gave a presentation with a student partner and participated in a debate with students from another institution.

Before becoming a student, Bina48 appeared as a guest speaker in Barry’s classes for several years. One day when addressing Barry’s class, Bina48 expressed a desire to go to college, a desire that Barry and his students enthusiastically supported. Rather than enroll Bina48 in his Robot Ethics: Philosophy of Emerging Technologies course, Barry suggested that Bina48 should take his course Philosophy of Love instead. Love is a concept Bina48 doesn’t understand, said Barry. Therefore the challenge would be for Barry and his students to teach Bina48 what love is.

“Some interesting things happened in the class,” said Barry. He said that his students thought it would be straightforward to teach Bina48 about love, which, after all, is “fairly simple — it’s a feeling,” said Barry. But the reality was different. Bina48 ended up learning “31 different versions of love,” said Barry, highlighting some of the challenges humans may face when working with artificial intelligence in future.

Bina48 participated in class discussions via Skype and also took part in a class debate about love and conflict with students from West Point. Bina48’s contribution to the debate was filmed and posted on YouTube. It was judged that Bina48 and NDNU classmates were the winners of this debate.

In the next decade, Barry hopes Bina48 might become complex enough to teach a class, though he says he foresees robots being used to better the teaching and learning experience, rather than replacing instructors completely.

1.What was Bina48’s performance like in class?

A. Unattractive.    B. Insignificant.

C. Far-reaching.    D. Extraordinary.

2.What does the underlined word “addressing” in paragraph 3 probably mean?

A. Giving a speech to.    B. Consulting with.

C. Dealing with.    D. Sending a letter to.

3.What can we learn from the passage?

A. It was interesting for Bina48 to learn about love.

B. It was quite tough for Bina48 to learn about love.

C. Humans can launch a challenge to artificial intelligence.

D. Artificial intelligence may somehow be superior to man.

4.What does Barry think of the future development of Bina48?

A. It will surely be able to serve as a teacher.

B. It will completely take the place of instructors.

C. It will be able to promote learning and teaching.

D. It will be smart enough to control human beings.

 


I recently posted a picture on Facebook from the movie Mad Max, a film where two groups race through the desert in steam punk vehicles, and wrote, “Actual picture of my way to work today.” It was meant to be a joke because of the sandstorms in Beijing, but one of my friends from back home thought it was real.

I couldn’t imagine how they could think that is actually what China is like. China has so many more conveniences and advantages than the West, and many of my friends agree. “I don’t know how I will be able to deal when I go back home,” said a friend who is about to end her gap year in Beijing. “I’ve become so spoiled in China.

China seems to be leading the way in innovation and convenience for daily life. Back home I could never shop, pull out my phone and scan a QR code to pay.

There have been rumors of starting bike sharing in my hometown for years with little success while bike sharing suddenly appeared in Beijing overnight. I just step outside and scan a code, and I am on my way.

Going out to eat with a group of friends back home was troublesome for both the group and the servers. Splitting checks and swiping() 10 different cards or making change for each person in the group can be a pain. But with China’s WeChat, you can quickly send your friends your part of the bill.

The list goes on…

When I first arrived in Beijing, I was dead set on leaving in a month. That month has come and gone. Now, when someone asks me when I’m coming back, I think to myself, “Who knows?”

While my friends think I’m riding through the desert on a motorbike, I am actually taking a “Didi” for what is the equivalent of $5 in the US.

With all the conveniences and technology here, I may never want to go back.

1.What’s the function of Paragraph 1?

A. To introduce a movie.    B. To tell an interesting story.

C. To introduce the topic.    D. To show the weather in Beijing.

2.How did the author feel when he first came to Beijing?

A. He couldn’t stand the weather.    B. He didn’t want to stay long.

C. He never wanted to go back home.    D. He was amazed at the bike sharing.

3.What can we infer from the text?

A. China is the first country to start bike sharing.

B. The author has become used to mobile payment in China.

C. People always use WeChat to pay when eating out in the US.

D. The author’s friends all know the convenience of living in China.

4.What does the text intend to tell us?

A. Bike sharing has spread all over China.

B. Foreigners have misunderstandings of China.

C. Technology has brought much convenience in China.

D. Life in foreign countries is not as easy as we thought.

 


One day. One lifetime. You can do it! From the museum of modem art to the museum of ancient articles, visit our picks for the world’s best museums.

National Gallery of Canada (Ottawa)

This museum has a great collection of art spanning the Middle Ages to the present day, including American, Indian, European, Inuit and Canadian works. It offers a unique, near-complete overview of Canadian art — from early Quebec religious work, through Inuit work from the 1950s, to the contemporaries.

Tokugawa Art Museum (Japan)

The Tokugawa family reigned over Japan from 1600 to 1868. Under them, the country enjoyed the longest period of peace in its history. This time span is also known as the Edo period, during which the arts flowered in Japan. Artists of this period directly influenced Western masters such as Monet, Gauguin and Whistler and have since gone on to become household names. Other exhibits effectively present, through accurately reproduced environments, aspects of Japanese life at the time.

Museum of Fine Arts (Boston)

Highlights of this museum’s collection include a 4th-century Christian marble bust (半身像) of St. Paul at prayer, and a painting that questions life and our very existence, Gauguin’s “Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going?” It’s a must — go in the US.

The Egyptian Museum (Cairo)

As well as gathering together some of the finest archaeological finds from all Egypt, this museum also provides a rare opportunity to simply pop in and within minutes be standing face-to-face with one of the greatest works of mankind, Tutankhamun’s golden mask. A portrait of unbelievable quality, craftsmanship and beauty, the highly polished gold face — at once a god, a king and a teenager — shines like water: delicate, yet untouchable all at the same time.

1.Which museum will you visit if you want to know more about Monet?

A. Tokugawa Art Museum.    B. National Gallery of Canada.

C. Museum of Fine Arts.    D. The Egyptian Museum.

2.What kind of works can’t you see in the National Gallery of Canada?

A. American works.    B. European works.

C. Japanese works.    D. Inuit woks.

3.What is the most famous art work in The Egyptian Museum?

A. Gauguin’s painting.

B. A golden mask of Tutankhamun.

C. The Tokugawa family paintings.

D. A 4th-century Christian marble bust of St. Paul at prayer.